SIU School of Medicine

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Problem-Based Learning

Standardized Patients

Diagnostic Justifications

  • Reed G. Williams, Debra L Klamen, Christopher B White, Emil Petrusa, Ruth-Marie E. Fincher, Carol F. Whitfield, John H. Shatzer, Teresita McCarty, and Bonnie M. Miller. Tracking Development of Clinical Reasoning Ability Across Five Medical Schools Using a Progress Test. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(9):1148-1154.

BID Model for Teaching in the Operating Room

  • Roberts, N. K., Williams, R. G., Kim, M. J. and Dunnington, G. L. (2009). The briefing, intraoperative teaching, debriefing model for teaching in the operating room. Journal American College of Surgeons, 208 (2), p299-303.