Peer Reviewed Publications in Education


  1. Benson A, Schwartz BF: Introduction of a Robotics Skills Laboratory into a Urology Curriculum. Journal of Endourology. 24(1):55-58, 2010.
  2. Benson, AD, Kramer, BA, Boehler, ML, Schwind, CJ, Schwartz, BF. Robot- Assisted Laparoscopic Skills Development: Formal versus Informal Training. Journal of Endourology, 2010, (issue pending, published online Jan 2010 ahead of print copy)
  3. Brenner MJ.  More about the teaching of scientific writing.  Acad Med. 2010 Jan;85(1):4;
  4. Dunnington G. Sleep deprivation and surgical performance: A difficult simulation. Surgery. 147(2):257, February 2010.
  5. Kim, MJ, Boehler, ML, Ketchum, J, Bueno R Jr, Williams, RG, Dunnington, G. Skills Coaches as part of the educational team. A randomized controlled trial of teaching of a basic surgical skill in the laboratory setting. The American Journal of Surgery, Volume 199, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 94-98
  6. ED Wietfeldt, I Hassan, A Johnson, C Veeder, M Boehler, G Dunnington, J Rakinic. Health-related information gathering practices in breast and colorectal specialty clinics: the end of the electronic divide?  Am J Surg. 2010; 199:3:364-368.
  7. Sanfey H. How to develop good strategies to minimize attrition in a diverse resident workforce. American College of Surgeons Resident Assist Page. . Accessed 4/5/10.
  8. Sanfey H. Teaching Residents to Pass and Catch the Baton. Invited commentary. Archives of Surgery. Accepted 2010
  9. Sanfey, H, Dunnington G. Verification of Proficiency: A Prerequisite for Clinical Experience. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2010
  10. Sanfey H, Ketchum J, Bartlett J, Markwell S, Meier A, Williams R, Dunnington G. Verification of Proficiency in Basic Skills for PGY1 Residents. Surgery 2010 (accepted).
  11. Sanfey H, McDowell C, Meier AH, Dunnington GL. Team Training for Surgical Trainees. THE SURGEON: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland. 2010 (submitted as part of ICOSET Proceedings)
  12.  Sanfey, H. Dunnington, G.  Basic Surgical Skills Testing for Junior Residents: Is it Necessary? (Program Director Survey) Accepted for ACS October 2010, Paper in Preparation for JACS
  13. Schwind, CJ, Boehler, M, Markwell, SJ. Williams, RG. Brenner, M. "Use of Simulated Pages to Prepare Medical Students for Internship and to Improve Patient Safety". Academic Medicine 2010.


  1. Brenner, Michael J. MD Collateral Damage. JAMA. 301(16):1637-1638, April 22, 2009.
  2. Dunnington G. Uneven Operative Experience in Surgical Training: A Call for Action. Annals of Surgery. 249(5):725-726, May 2009.
  3. Dunnington G.  The Formula for a Successful Laparoscopic Skills Curriculum-Invited Critique. Archives of Surgery. 144(1):82, January 2009.
  4. Michael J. Kim, Reed G. Williams, Margaret L. Boehler, Janet K. Ketchum, Gary L. Dunnington. Refining the evaluation of operative room performance. Journal of Surgical Education. 2009. Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 303-398
  5. Hedrick T, Turrentine B, Sanfey H, Schirmer B, Friel C. Implications of laparoscopy on surgical education training. AJS 2009; 197: 73 - 75.
  6. Kim, M, Williams, R. Boehler, M. Ketchum, J. Dunnington, G. Refining the evaluation of operative room performance. Journal of Surgical Education. 2009. Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 303-398
  7. Meier, Andreas. Instructions for Obtaining Journal CME Credit. Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. 4(1):65-66, Spring 2009
  8. Roberts, N, Williams, RG, Kim, MJ. Dunnington, GL. The Briefing, Intraoperative Teaching, Debriefing Model for Teaching in the Operating Room , 04 December 2008 Journal of the American College of Surgeons . February 2009 (Vol. 208, Issue 2, Pages 299-303)
  9. Williams, Reed G. PhD; Roberts, Nicole K. PhD; Schwind, Cathy J. RN, MS; Dunnington, Gary L. MD The nature of general surgery resident performance problems. Surgery. 145(6):651-658, June 2009.


  1. DaRosa, Debra; Rogers, David A.; Williams, Reed G.; Hauge, Linnea S.; Sherman, Heather; Murayama, Kenric; Nagle, Alexander; Dunnington, Gary L. Impact of a Structured Skills Laboratory Curriculum on Surgery Residents' Intraoperative Decision-Making and Technical Skills. Academic Medicine. RIME: Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Annual Conference November 2-November 5, 2008. 83(10) Supplement: S68-S71, October 2008.
  2. Hwang, Christine S. MD a; Pagano, Christina R. MD, MBA b; Wichterman, Keith A. MD c; Dunnington, Gary L. MD a; Alfrey, Edward J. MD a Resident versus no resident: A single institutional study on operative complications, mortality, and cost. Surgery. 144(2):339-344, August 2008.
  3. Meier AH, Huang, YM:  Coming of Age: Online Continuing Education for the Journal and the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (Editorial). J Sim Healthcare 3(4):247-8, 2008
  4. Phitayakorn R, Williams RG, Yudkowsky R, Harris IB, Hauge LS, Widmann WD, et al. Patient-care-related telephone communication between general surgery residents and attending surgeons. J Am Coll Surg 2008; 206(4):742-50.
  5. Sanfey, H, Stiles, B, Hedrick, T, Sawyer R. Morning Report: Combining Education with Patient Handover. The Surgeon: The Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons 2008; 6(2): 94-100.


  1. Colliver JA, Markwell SJ, Verhulst SJ, Robbs RS. The prognostic value of documented unprofessional behavior in medical school records for predicting and preventing subsequent medical board disciplinary action: the Papadakis studies revisited. Teach Learn Med. 2007 Summer;19(3):213-5.
  2. Colliver JA, Markwell SJ Research on problem-based learning: the need for critical analysis of
    methods and findings. Medical Education 2007 June;41(6):533-535.
  3. Williams, Reed G.; Silverman, Ross JD, Schwind, Cathy; Fortune, John B; Sutyak, John  Horvath, Karen D; Van Eaton, Erik G.; Azzie, Georges; Potts, John R. III; Boehler, Margaret; Dunnington, Gary L.. Surgeon Information Transfer and Communication: Factors Affecting Quality and Efficiency of Inpatient Care. Annals of Surgery. 245(2):159-169, February 2007
  4. Williams R, Klamen D, Mayer D, Valaski M, Roberts N.  A sampling strategy for promoting and assessing medical student retention of physical examination skills. Academic Medicine 2007; 82(10 Suppl): S22-S25


  1. Boehler, Margaret L; Rogers, David A; Schwind, Cathy; Mayforth, Ruth; Quin, Jacquelyn; Williams, Reed G; Dunnington, Gary. An investigation of medical student reactions to feedback: a randomised controlled trial. Medical Education. 40(8):746-749, August 2006.
  2. Colliver JA, Markwell SJ. ANCOVA, selection bias, statistical equating, and effect size: recommendations for publication. Teach Learn Med. 2006 Fall;18(4):284-6.
  3. McLafferty, Robert B. MD; Williams, Reed G. PhD; Lambert, Andrew D. MD; Dunnington, Gary L. MD. Surgeon communication behaviors that lead patients to not recommend the surgeon to family members or friends: Analysis and impact. Surgery. 140(4):616-624, October 2006.
  4. Williams RG, Klamen DL. See one, do one, teach one – Exploring the core teaching beliefs of medical school faculty. Medical Teacher, Aug 2006; 28(5):418-424.


  1. Hammond L, Ketchum J, Schwartz BF: ACGME technical skills competency compliance: A urologic surgical skills laboratory curriculum. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 201(3):454-457, 2005
  2. Larson, Jennine L. MD; Williams, Reed G. PhD; Ketchum, Janet; Boehler, Margaret L. RN, MS; Dunnington, Gary L. MD. Feasibility, reliability and validity of an operative performance rating system for evaluating surgery residents. Surgery. 138(4):640-649, October 2005.
  3. Lingard, Lorelei; Regehr, Glenn; Espin, Sherry; Devito, Isabella; Whyte, Sarah; Buller, Douglas; Sadovy, Bohdan; Rogers, David; Reznick, Richard Perceptions of Operating Room Tension across Professions: Building Generalizable Evidence and Educational Resources Academic Medicine. RIME: Proceedings of the Forty-fourth Annual Conference November 6-9, 2005. 80(10) Supplement: S75-S79, October 2005.
  4. Littlefield JH, DaRosa DA, Paukert J, Williams RG, Klamen DA, Schoolfield JD. Improving resident performance assessment: Numerical precision and narrative quality. Academic Medicine 2005; 80: 489-95
  5. Williams, Reed G. PhD; Dunnington, Gary L. MD; Klamen, Debra L. MD, MHPE Forecasting Residents' Performance-Partly Cloudy. Academic Medicine. 80(5):415-422, May 2005.
  6. Williams, Reed G. PhD; Verhulst, Steven PhD; Colliver, Jerry A. PhD; Dunnington, Gary L. MD Assuring the reliability of resident performance appraisals: More items or more observations?. Surgery. 137(2):141-147, February 2005.
  7. Williams RG, Schwind CJ, Dunnington GL, Fortune J, Rogers DA, Boehler ML. The effects of group dynamics on resident progress committee deliberations. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2005; 17: 96-100


  1. Boehler ML, Rogers DA, Schwind CJ, Fortune J, Ketchum J, Dunnington G. A senior elective designed to prepare medical students for surgical residency. Am J Surg 2004; 187(6):695-7.
  2. Hammond L, Ketchum J and Schwartz BF: A new approach to urology training: a laboratory model for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Journal of Urology, 172:1950-1952, 2004.
  3. Schwind CJ, Boehler ML, Rogers DA, Williams RG, Dunnington G, Folse R, et al. Variables influencing medical student learning in the operating room. Am J Surg 2004; 187(2):198-200.
  4. Schwind CJ, Williams RG, Boehler ML, Dunnington GL. Do individual attending post-rotation performance ratings detect resident clinical performance deficiencies? Acad Med 2004; 79(5):453-457.
  5. Williams R. Have standardized patient examinations stood the test of time and experience? Teach Learn Med 2004; 16(2):215-22.
  6. Williams R, Dunnington G. ACGME core competencies initiative: The road to implementation in the surgical specialties. Surgical Clinics of North America 2004; 84(6):1621-46.
  7. Williams RG, Dunnington G. The prognostic value of resident clinical performance ratings. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2004; 199(4):620-7.


  1. Boehler ML, Rogers DA, Schwind CJ, Williams RG, Dunnington G. Who are the surgery clerkship directors and what are their educational needs? Am J Surg 2003; 185:216-8.
  2. DaRosa, Debra A. PhD; Bell, Richard H. Jr MD; Dunnington, Gary L. MD  Residency program models, implications, and evaluation: Results of a think tank consortium on resident work hours.  Surgery. 133(1):13-23, January 2003
  3. Dunnington GL. A model for teaching sentinel lymph node mapping and excision and axillary lymph node dissection. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 197:119-21.
  4. Dunnington GL, Williams RG. Addressing the new competencies for residents' surgical training. Acad Med 2003; 78:14-21.
  5. Dutta S, Dunnington G, Blanchard MC, Spielman B, DaRosa D, Joehl RJ. "And doctor, no residents please!" J Am Coll Surg 2003;197(6):1012-7.
  6. Kruse, J.E., Bradley, J., Wesley, R.M., Markwell, S.J. “Research Support Infrastructure and Productivity in U.S. Family Practice Residency Programs.” Academic Medicine 2003 Jan; 78(1):54-60
  7. Hamdy H, Prasad K, Williams R, Salih FA. Reliability and validity of the direct observation clinical encounter examination (DOCEE). Med Educ 2003; 37:205-12.
  8. MacDonald J, Williams RG, Rogers DA. Self-assessment in simulation-based surgical skills training. Am J Surg 2003; 185:319-22.
  9. MacDonald J, Ketchum J, Williams RG, Rogers LQ. A lay person versus a trained endoscopist. Surg Endosc 2003; 17:896-8.
  10. Trunkey D, Russell T, Dunnington G. Competencies. Arch Surg 2003; 138:672-80.
  11. Williams RG, Dunnington GL, Folse JR. The impact of a program for systematically recognizing and rewarding academic performance. Acad Med 2003; 78:156-62.
  12. Williams RG, Klamen DA, McGaghie WC. Cognitive, social and environmental sources of bias in clinical performance ratings. Teach Learn Med 2003; 15(4):270-92.


  1. Boehler ML, Schwind CJ, Dunnington G, Rogers DA, Folse R. Medical student contact with patients on a surgery clerkship: is there a chance to learn? J Am Coll Surg 2002; 195:539-42.
  2. Fortune JB. The content and value of letters of recommendation in the resident candidate evaluation process. Curr Surg 2002; 59:79-83.
  3. Nackman GB, Sutyak J, Lowry SF, Rettie C. Predictors of educational outcome: factors impacting performance on a standardized clinical evaluation. J Surg Res 2002; 106:314-8.
  4. Rogers DA, Regehr G, MacDonald J. A role for error training in surgical technical skill instruction and evaluation. Am J Surg 2002; 183:242-5.
  5. Rogers DA. Ethical and educational considerations in minimally invasive surgery training for practicing surgeons. Semin Laparosc Surg 2002; 9:206-11.


  1. Boehler ML, Schwind CJ, Folse R, Dunnington G, Markwell S, Dutta S. An evaluation of study habits of third-year medical students in a surgical clerkship. Am J Surg 2001; 181:268-71
  2. Hamdy H, Williams R, Tekian A, Benjamin S, Shazali H, Bandaranayake R. Application of "Vitals": Visual indicators of teaching and learning success in reporting student evaluations of clinical teachers. Education for Health 2001; 14:267-76.
  3. Rogers DA, Elstein AS, Bordage G. Improving continuing medical education for surgical techniques: applying the lessons learned in the first decade of minimal access surgery. Ann Surg 2001; 233:159-66.
  4. 4.   Schwind CJ, Boehler ML, Folse R, Dunnington G, Markwell SJ. Development of physical examination skills in a third-year surgical clerkship. Am J Surg 2001; 181:338-40.
  5. 5.   Sutyak JP, Straznicka M, Leone RJ. Preoperative evaluation. Curr Surg 2001; 58:138-142.

 Published Chapters in Education


  1. Sanfey H, Success as a surgical educator in Manual for Researchers in Surgical Education, second edition, edited by J.Capella, S Kasten, S. Steinman and L Torbeck. 2010; Chapter 14 pp 193 - 211.
  2. Sanfey H, Dunnington G. Hot Topics in Surgical Education in Manual for Researchers in Surgical Education, second edition, edited by J.Capella, S Kasten, S. Steinman and L Torbeck. 2010; Chapter 1 pp 1 - 18.
  3. Sanfey H,Lerner S, Grandas O, Goldman M. Transplantation in Essentials of General Surgery edited by Peter Lawrence. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins fifth edition 2010.
  4. Sanfey H, Bartlett J, Ketchum J, Dunnington G .Innovations in Skills Training in North America: inBest Practices in Surgical EducationEthicon Endo - surgery2010
  5. Sanfey H. Dunnington G. Verification of Proficiency: A Prerequisite for Clinical Experience. Surgical Clinics of North America 2010.


  1. Sanfey H. Surgery – A Competency Based Companion. Editor Barry Mann.  Section Editor Transplantation. Elsevier 2009 pp 559 - 582.


  1. Rogers DA. Education and Training for Pediatric Minimal Access Surgery in Pediatric minimal access surgery. Langer JC, Albanese CT. Taylor & Francis, 2005.
  2. McGaghie WC, Pangaro LN, Ainsworth M, Albritton TA, Battistone M, Carnahan D, Corcoran J, Denton GD, Fincher RE, Ginsburg S, Grum CM, Hemmer PA, Holmboe E, Issenber SB, Jamieson T, Leggio LE, Poremba J, Rogers DA, Scalese RJ, Szauter K. Chapter 6:Evaluation and Grading of Students in Guidebook for Clerkship Directors (Third Edition), Fincher RM. (ed). Alliance for Clinical Education, 2005.
  3. White C, Manfred L, Bowen J, Leamon M, Koestler J, Konopasek L, Rogers DA. Chapter 5: Instructional Methods and Strategies in Guidebook for Clerkship Directors (Third Edition), Fincher RM. (ed). Alliance for Clinical Education, 2005.