How to Use Histology Web Pages
In these web-pages you will find extensively hyper-linked notes and images summarizing the basics of tissue organization in the human body. The organization of this material follows the organization of the SIU School of Medicine Year One Curriculum.
About this resource (pdf).
Caveat (source of images): Although the principal subject of these webpages is human histology, many images illustrate specimens from other species. These images are representative of mammalian histology generally (including human), although some details may depart from the human condition. The source for most micrographs is a decades-old collection of commercially-prepared slides (mostly purchased from Turtox); some of these tissue specimens come from non-human mammals. (Many of the Virtual Slidebox specimens come from the same source.)
These notes are an ancillary resource, NOT a substitute for textbooks or for time spent studying real specimens with a microscope. If you use this on-line study aid, please refer to your textbooks and atlases for richer, more detailed information.
- Rhodin's An Atlas of Histology (in the MRC) is an essential resource, since this website does not include electron micrographs.
Also available online, Rhodin's An Atlas of Histology.
This histology resource is divided into four major blocks (see top of this page).
- The INTRO block provides basic essentials for further understanding.
- The remaining three blocks offer material specific to the three curricular units -- CRR, SSB, and ERG.
- The HISTO HOME page provides links to each unit.
- Each unit opens with an index page.
- Each index page links to Study Guides for particular topics.
- Highlighted keywords link to definitions, explanations, or examples.
- Extensive cross-links allow access to the same basic information from several different directions.
- Thumbnail images (see example at right) are links to larger, labelled images with additional notes. (To browse images, see the image index.)
- Some limited self-assessment materials are available.
- These pages are designed for browsing. You are encouraged to follow links from topic to topic as desired. Your browser's "BACK" button may be most convenient for returning.
- At the top of each page is a menu bar linking to related index pages. The HISTO HOME page always provides a starting point to find major topics.
- Since hyperlinks are an essential feature, these web pages are intended only for on-line use. However, if you must have print copies of these webpages, click here.
SEARCH THE SITE:
Emphasis throughout is on normal histology, although illustrative examples of pathologic histology are presented occasionally.
All images have been digitally manipulated. This includes routine adjustment of color balance, contrast, and sharpness. In some cases, image details have been modified to emphasize selected features or to minimize distracting artefacts.
SIU students: You are invited to e-mail questions, comments, requests, and suggestions directly to Prof. King. This takes just a few seconds: From any page, click on the e-mail link at bottom, type a quick message (e.g., "I don't understand so-and-so", or "How about more info on [topic]", or "Please add a link from [page] to [topic]" or "There's an error on [page]"). In most cases, a response should be received during the next workday (if not sooner).
texts / atlases / references / access to literature
Texts. The following are examples of good introductory texts, all roughly equivalent in depth and coverage, appropriate for the level of understanding expected in our current year-one curriculum. Each student should have ready access to a text at this level.
Mescher, Junqueira's Basic Histology: Text & Atlas, 12th ed. (2010).
Ross & Pawlina, Histology: A Text and Atlas, 6th ed. (2011).
Kierszenbaum, Histology and Cell Biology: An Introduction to Pathology, 3nd edition (20011). Includes extensive correlates with biochemistry / cell biology / pathology; very dry style.
Stevens & Lowe, Human Histology, 3rd ed. (2005).
Concise, with illustrative pathology but minimal physiology.
Young, Lowe, Stevens & Heath, Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas, 5th ed. (2006). Emphasizes tissue function as well as structure.
Telser, A. G. et al. Elsevier's Integrated Histology, (2007). Concise, includes cross-references to other disciplines.
NOTE: For nervous tissue, chapters 2 and 4 in Kandel, Schwartz, & Jessell, Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., are recommended, with chapters 3 and 5 through 9 for additional detail.
Your choice of a text at this level may be based on availability or on personal preference for style (which can differ markedly among texts).
Atlases. Just as a single snapshot cannot the convey the impact of a landscape or the personality of friend, so a single micrograph is seldom sufficient to catch the full character of a tissue. Since any given text typically illustrates each organ/region with only one or two images, students are encouraged to view several sources for multiple images. Histology atlases (some are examples listed below) are quite useful for this purpose. Personal possession of an atlas should not be necessary; several different atlases are available in the MRC.
Rhodin, An Atlas of Histology (1976); Rhodin's An Atlas of Histology Online.
This is an excellent source for electron microscope images, organized by organ system. Note that each section begins with low-magnification images and leads through higher and higher magnification, making it easy to appreciate images in organ and tissue context. This book is usefully kept alongside your light microscope and treated as if it were an "extra-high power" objective. Although this book is out of print, multiple copies are available in the MRC. Also available online, Rhodin's An Atlas of Histology.
Leboffe, A Photographic Atlas of Histology (2003), ISBN: 0-89582-605-4 .
Ross, Pawlina & Barnash, Atlas of Descriptive Histology (2009), ISBN 978-0-87893-696-0 .
Berman & Milikowski, Color Atlas of Basic Histology, 3rd edition (2003).
Milikowski & Berman, Color Atlas of Basic Histopathology (1997).
An excellent resource for images of particular pathologies.
Schechter & Wood, Ultrastructure: An Interactive Virtual Electron Microscope (2005).
A new CD resource just published by Sinauer. Like the out-of-print atlas by Rhodin (above), a laptop running this CD might be useful alongside your light microscope and treated as if it were an "extra-high power" objective.
Gartner & Hiatt. Color Atlas of Histology, 5th edition, 2009.
[These are only examples. Any book labelled as a "atlas" of histology will offer a useful collection of images, for comparison and contrast with other sources and with real specimens.]
References. The following are much more substantial (heavier, much more detail, 1200 vs. 400 pp.), better for reference than for introductory exposure. Students should be aware that such resources exist, but personal ownership is not recommended.
Stevens et al., Wheater's Basic Histopathology. 4th edition, 2002. Concise introduction to the application of histology to pathology. May be appropriate if you have already had a course in histology, or if you wish to read beyond the basics of normal histology.
Mills, Histology for Pathologists, 3rd ed. (2007). New edition of Sternberg (below).
Sternberg, Histology for Pathologists, 2nd ed. (1998). Excellent source for details of normal histology that are not included in most introductory texts.
Kumar, Abbas, Fausto & Aster, Robbins & Cotran's Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th ed. (2010). The classic textbook for pathology.
Fawcett, Textbook of Histology, 12th ed. (2001).
Several other histology websites offer additional resources for information and images.
Access to literature. Histology as a scientific discipline has deep roots, beginning in the 1800s. Although internet searching can readily discover recent research papers, the accumulated results from nearly two hundred years of microscopic research are not yet adequately represented on the internet. And, unfortunately, "starter" lists of older references (which were once a standard feature of histology texts) have fallen out of favor in newer "lightweight" popular texts. For initial access to primary research reports in the scientific literature (often by way of secondary reviews), check the chapter-by-chapter listings in the following older texts. At least some of these volumes should be accessible in any good university library.
Weiss, Leon., Histology: Cell and Tissue Biology, 5th ed., Elsevier Science Publ., New York (1983) [also earlier editions, by Greep, Roy O.; by Greep & Weiss; and by Weiss & Greep].
Bloom, W., & Fawcett, Don W., A Textbook of Histology, 11th ed., Saunders (1986) [also numerous earlier editions, initially without Fawcett].
Cormack, David H., Ham's Histology, 9th ed., Lippincott (1987) [also earlier editions by Ham, Arthur W., and by Ham & Cormack].
Bailey, Frederick R., A Textbook of Histology (1906) [also later editions, Bailey's Textbook of Histology, with various coauthors].
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Last updated: 1 April 2013 / dgk