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CRR HISTOLOGY Kidney and Urinary Tract

SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

NOTE: The following questions are designed for introductory drill (i.e., to practice basic vocabulary and description of cell structure and function in the urinary system). 
These questions do not necessarily represent the quality of questions which will appear on the CRR Unit evaluation.

(reference:  http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/rnguide.htm).

     [An mp3 file of this question set has been recorded by SIUC Anthropology student M. Campbell.]

Other topics:

SAQ slides
SAQ, Introduction -- microscopy, cells, basic tissue types, blood cells.
SAQ, Respiratory System.
SAQ, Cardiovascular System.


Multiple choice questions.

Point to an answer.  Green color and bold indicates "CORRECT."  Red color and italics indicates "Wrong answer." 
(NOTE:  In cases where all of the responses are correct, only "all of the above" will be indicated as correct.)

  1. One lobe of the kidney:
    1. is separated from other lobes by connective tissue septa.
    2. is visible grossly as a rounded bulge on the kidney surface.
    3. consists of one medullary pyramid together with the associated cortex.
    4. drains tubular fluid into a single interlobular duct.
    5. is all of the above.
       
  2. The region of the kidney containing glomeruli is called the:
    1. cortex.
    2. medulla.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. papillae.
       
  3. The region of the kidney containing proximal convoluted tubules is called the:
    1. cortex.
    2. medulla.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. papillae.
       
  4. The region of the kidney containing long loops of Henle is called the:
    1. cortex.
    2. medulla.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. papillae.
       
  5. The region of the kidney containing distal convoluted tubules is called the:
    1. cortex.
    2. medulla.
    3. capsule.
    4. pelvis.
    5. hilus.
       
  6. The region of the kidney containing larger collecting ducts is called the:
    1. cortex.
    2. medulla.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. papilla.
       
  7. Regions of cortical parenchyma located between medullary pyramids rather than adjacent to the surface of the kidney are called:
    1. medullary rays.
    2. renal lobules.
    3. columns of Bertin.
    4. papillae.
    5. calyces.
       
  8. Regions of cortex with texture similar to that of the medulla, containing straight distal tubules and collecting ducts, are called:
    1. medullary rays.
    2. renal lobules.
    3. columns of Bertin.
    4. papillae.
    5. calyces.
       
  9. A region of cortex surrounding and drained by a single bundle of collecting ducts is called a:
    1. medullary ray.
    2. renal lobule.
    3. column of Bertin.
    4. papilla.
    5. calyx.
       
  10. The end of each medullary pyramid through which collecting ducts open into a calyx is called a:
    1. medullary ray.
    2. renal lobule.
    3. column of Bertin.
    4. papilla.
    5. hilus.
       
  11. The tip of each papilla, perforated by the openings of collecting ducts, is called the:
    1. medullary ray.
    2. capsule.
    3. column of Bertini.
    4. area cribosa.
    5. hilus.
       
  12. The space into which one medullary pyramid drains is called one:
    1. column.
    2. papilla.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. hilus.
       
  13. The large space lined by transitional epithelium which funnels urine into the ureter is called the:
    1. capsule.
    2. papillae.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. hilus.
       
  14. The capsule of the kidney consists of:
    1. transitional epithelium.
    2. dense fibrous connective tissue.
    3. loose cellular connective tissue with many lymphocytes.
    4. adipose connective tissue.
    5. endothelium.
       
  15. The region of the kidney where artery, vein and ureter are attached is called the:
    1. cortex.
    2. medulla.
    3. calyx.
    4. pelvis.
    5. hilus.
       
  16. The renal sinus, a space within the hilus that surrounds the renal pelvis, is filled with:
    1. extracellular fluid.
    2. air.
    3. loose adipose connective tissue.
    4. urine.
    5. dense fibrous connective tissue.
       
  17. A principal function for the glomerulus is:
    1. filtration of blood from capillaries into urinary space.
    2. active resorption of nutrients from ultrafiltrate back into the blood.
    3. Volume reduction tubular fluid, with ions pumped from lumen into intersititium followed by diffusion of water.
    4. regulated passive resorption of water through the medullary concentration gradient.
    5. regulationof plasma volume and blood pressure through renin secretion.
       
  18. A principle function for the proximal convoluted tubule is:
    1. filtration of blood from capillaries into urinary space.
    2. active resorption of nutrients from ultrafilrate back into the blood.
    3. establishment of medullary concentration gradient.
    4. regulated passive resorption of water through the medullary concentration gradient.
    5. regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure through renin secretion.
       
  19. A principal function for the juxtaglomerular apparatus is:
    1. filtration of blood from capillaries into the urinary space.
    2. active resorption of nutrients from ultrafiltrate back into the blood.
    3. volume reduction of tubular fluid, with ions pumped from lumen into intersitium followed by diffusion of water.
    4. regulated passive resorption of water through the medullary concentration gradient.
    5. regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure through renin secretion.
       
  20. A principal function for the loop of Henle is:
    1. filtration of blood from capillaries into urinary space.
    2. active resorption of nutrients from ultrafiltrate back into the blood.
    3. establishment of the medullary concentration gradient.
    4. regulated passive resorption of water through the medullary concentration gradient.
    5. regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure through renin secretion.
       
  21. A principal function for the distal convoluted tubule is:
    1. establishment of the medullary concentration gradient.
    2. active resorption of nutrients from ultrafiltrate back into the blood.
    3. volume reduction of tubular fluid, with ions pumped from lumen into interstitium followed by diffusion of water.
    4. regulated passive resorption of water through the medullary concentration gradient.
    5. regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure through renin secretion.
       
  22. Fluid which is transported from the lumen of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules into the cortical interstium is take up by the:
    1. collecting ducts.
    2. pelvis.
    3. podocytes.
    4. pertitubular capillaries.
    5. loops of Henle.
       
  23. A principle function for the collecting duct is:
    1. filtration of blood from capillaries into urinary space.
    2. active resorption of nutrients from ultrafiltrate back into the blood.
    3. volume reduction tubular fluid, with ions pumped from lumen into interstitium followed by diffusion of water.
    4. regulated passive resorption of water through the medullary concentration gradient.
    5. regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure through rennin secretion.
       
  24. The region of glomerulus (renal corpuscle) where the capillary tuft is attached is called the:
    1. mesangium.
    2. area cribosa.
    3. vascular pole.
    4. urinary (tubular) pole.
    5. juxtaglomerular apparatus.
       
  25. The region of glomerulus (renal corpuscle) where the urinary space drains into the proximal convoluted tubule is called the:
    1. mesangium.
    2. area cribosa.
    3. vascular pole.
    4. urinary (tubular) pole.
    5. juxtaglomerular apparatus.
       
  26. The lumen of glomerular capillaries is lined by:
    1. mesangial cells.
    2. podocytes foot processes.
    3. juxtaglomerular cells.
    4. continuous endothelium.
    5. fenestrated endothelium.
       
  27. Interstitial cells located in matrix between glomerular capillaries are called:
    1. pericytes.
    2. juxtaglomerular cells.
    3. podocytes.
    4. mesangial cells.
    5. fibroblasts.
       
  28. Glomerular capillaries are supported on the outside (adjacent to the urinary space) by:
    1. mesangial cells.
    2. fibroblasts.
    3. podocyte foot processes.
    4. pericytes.
    5. juxtaglomerular cells.
       
  29. Smooth muscle cells of renal arterioles which are modified for endocrine secretion are called:
    1. mesangial cells.
    2. fibroblasts.
    3. podocytes.
    4. pericytes.
    5. juxtaglomerular cells.
       
  30. The outer lining of Bowman's capsule (the parietal epithelilum) consists of a single layer of:
    1. squamous cells.
    2. cuboidal cells.
    3. podocytes.
    4. pericytes.
    5. mesangial cells.
       
  31. Filtration slits are located between adjacent:
    1. layers of the glomerular basement membrane.
    2. capillary fenestrations.
    3. podocyte foot processes.
    4. mesangial cells.
    5. capillary endothelial cells.
       
  32. Podocytes are:
    1. simple squamous epithelial cells.
    2. simple cuboidal epithelial cells.
    3. simple columnar epithelial cells.
    4. unique epithelial cells with many interdigitating processes.
    5. not epithelial cells.
       
  33. Mesangial cells are:
    1. simple squamous epithelial cells.
    2. simple cuboidal epithelial cells.
    3. simple columnar epithelial cells.
    4. unique epithelial cells with many interdigitating processes.
    5. not epithelial cells.
       
  34. The normal thickness of the glomerular basement membrane is between:
    1. 30 and 35 nanometers.
    2. 0.3 and 0.35 micrometers.
    3. 3 and 3.5 micrometers.
    4. 30 and 35 micrometers.
    5. 300 and 350 micrometers.
       
  35. A basement membrane is also found beneath which of the following epithelia?
    1. bowman's capsule.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. distal convoluted tubule.
    4. macula densa.
    5. all of the above.
       
  36. The component of the glomerular filtration barrier which is permeable to water and small molecules but not larger molecules like proteins is the:
    1. mesangial cells.
    2. podocyte foot processes.
    3. fenestrated endothelium.
    4. glomerular basement membrane.
    5. bowman's capsule.
       
  37. The component of the glomerular filtration barrier which holds back blood cells but allows fluid and large molecules to pass freely is the:
    1. mesangial cells.
    2. podocyte foot processes.
    3. fenestrated endothelium.
    4. glomerular basement membrane.
    5. bowman's capsule.
       
  38. Extraglomerular mesangial cells (lacis cells) are located:
    1. at the vascular pole of the glomerulus.
    2. at the urinary pole of the glomerulus.
    3. within the macula densa.
    4. encircling the proximal tubule.
    5. between adjacent podocyte foot processes.
       
  39. Epithelial cells lining the proximal convoluted tubule:
    1. have an apical brush border of microvilli for active absorption from the lumen.
    2. have basal infoldings and interdigitations with adjacent cells for increased basal membrane surface area.
    3. have many mitochondria to provide energy for active transport against a concentration gradient .
    4. are cuboidal.
    5. all of the above.
       
  40. Epithelial cells lining the distal convoluted tubule:
    1. have an apical brush border of microvilli for active absorption from the lumen.
    2. have basal infoldings and interdigitations with adjacent cells for increased basal membrane surface area.
    3. have many mitochondria to provide energy for active transport against a concentration gradient.
    4. are cuboidal.
    5. all of the above except the brush border.
       
  41. The proximal convoluted tubule is:
    1. several times longer than the distal convoluted tubule.
    2. about the same length as the distal convoluted tubule.
    3. less than half the length of the distal convoluted tubule.
    4. much narrower than the distal convoluted tubule.
    5. any of the above may be true, depending on location in cortex.
       
  42. Epithelial cells lining the thin limb of the loop of Henle:
    1. have an apical brush border of microvilli for active absorption from the llumen.
    2. contain mumerous basally located secretory vesicles.
    3. contain any ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum for extensive protein synthesis.
    4. are simple squamous.
    5. all of the above.
       
  43. Epithelial cells lining collecting ducts:
    1. stain less intensely with H & E than those lining proximal or distal tubules.
    2. often display distinct intercellular boundaries, unlike those lining proximal or distal tubules.
    3. regulate their permeability to water in response to antiduretic hormone concentration.
    4. are simple cuboidal.
    5. all of the above.
       
  44. The macula densa consists of:
    1. extraglomerular mesangial cells.
    2. closely-packed nuclei in the epithelium of the distal convoluted tubule.
    3. modified smooth muscle cells.
    4. closely-packed nuclei in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubule.
    5. densely packed collagen fibers in the juxtaglomerular interstitium.
       
  45. Juxtaglomerular cells secrete:
    1. urea.
    2. antiduretic hormone.
    3. renin.
    4. angiotensinogen.
    5. aldosterone.
       
  46. Arteries which form arches along the border between the cortex and the medulla of the kidney are called:
    1. interlobar arteries.
    2. interlobular arteries.
    3. arcuate arteries.
    4. afferent arteries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  47. Arteries which extend into the renal cortex, usually perpendicular to its surface, are called:
    1. interlobar arteries.
    2. interlobular arteries.
    3. arcuate arteries.
    4. afferent arteries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  48. Bundles of parallel vessels which extend into the medulla are called:
    1. interlobar arteries.
    2. interlobular arteries.
    3. arcuate arteries.
    4. afferent arteries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  49. Vessels which connect interlobular arteries with glomerular capillaries are called:
    1. arcuate arteries.
    2. afferent arterioles.
    3. efferent arterioles.
    4. peritubular capillaries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  50. Vessels which connect glomerular capillaries with peritubular capillaries are called:
    1. arcuate arteries.
    2. afferent arterioles.
    3. efferent arterioles.
    4. peritubular capillaries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  51. Vessels which surround proximal and distal convoluted tubules, receiving reabsorbed water and nutrients, are called:
    1. arcuate arteries.
    2. afferent arterioles.
    3. efferent arterioles.
    4. peritubular capillaries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  52. The volume of blood decreases while passing through the:
    1. interlobular arteries.
    2. afferent arterioles.
    3. glomerular capillaries.
    4. efferent arterioles.
    5. peritubular capillaries.
       
  53. The volume of blood increases while passing through the:
    1. interlobular arteries.
    2. afferent arterioles.
    3. glomerular capillaries.
    4. efferent arterioles.
    5. peritubular capillaries.
       
  54. Vessels which form a counter-current exchange, to maintain an osmotic gradient established by long loops of Henle, are called:
    1. arcuate arteries.
    2. afferent arterioles.
    3. efferent arterioles.
    4. peritubular capillaries.
    5. vasa recta.
       
  55. Interstitial fluid in the kidney remains essentially iso-osmotic with blood in each of the following regions EXCEPT:
    1. cortex, surrounding proximal convoluted tubules.
    2. cortex, surrounding distal convoluted tubules.
    3. cortex, within the glomerular mesangium.
    4. cortex, surrounding Bowman's capsule.
    5. medulla, surrounding loops of Henle.
       
  56. Interstitial oxygen concentration is lowest in which of the following regions?
    1. outer cortex.
    2. juxtamedullary cortex.
    3. outer medulla.
    4. inner medulla, in the papillae.
    5. interstitial oxygen concentration is similar in all the above areas.
       
  57. The essential function for the medullary concentration gradient is to permit the:
    1. passive resorption of nutrients from tubular fluid.
    2. active resorption of ions from tubular fluid.
    3. passive resorption of ions from tubular fluid.
    4. active resorption of water from tubular fluid.
    5. passive resorption of water from tubular fluid.
       
  58. The volume of tubular fluid decreases as it passes through which of the following?
    1. proximal convoluted tubule.
    2. loop of Henle.
    3. distal convoluted tubule.
    4. collecting duct.
    5. all of the above.
       
  59. Which segment of the nephron functions to concentrate tubular fluid by passive resorption of water as it as it passes through an osmotic concentration gradient?
    1. glomerulus.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. loop of Henle.
    4. distal convoluted tubule.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  60. Which segment of the nephron functions to filter fluid from blood into urinary space?
    1. glomerulus.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. loop of Henle.
    4. distal convoluted tubule.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  61. Which segment of the nephron functions to reduce tubular fluid volume by pumping ions (which are followed by water) into the interstitium?
    1. glomerular capillaries.
    2. glomerular mesangium.
    3. juxtaglomerular apparatus.
    4. distal convoluted tubule.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  62. Which segment of the nephron functions to establish a medullary concentration gradient?
    1. glomerulus.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. loop of Henle.
    4. distal convoluted tubule.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  63. Which segment of the nephron functions by active resorption of nutrients from ultrafiltrate back into blood?
    1. glomerulus.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. loop of Henle.
    4. juxtaglomerular apparatus.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  64. Which segment of the nephron functions to regulate blood pressure through renin secretion?
    1. glomerulus.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. juxtaglomerular apparatus.
    4. loop of Henle.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  65. Which cells respond to aldosterone?
    1. podocytes.
    2. epithelial cells of distal tubules.
    3. juxtaglomerular cells.
    4. epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule.
    5. mesangial cells.
       
  66. Which cells repond to antiduretic hormone (ADH)?
    1. podocytes.
    2. mesangial cells.
    3. juxtaglomerular cells.
    4. epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule.
    5. epithelial cells of collecting duct.
       
  67. Which cells secrete a product which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin?
    1. podocytes.
    2. epithelial cells of proximal and distal convoluted tubules.
    3. juxtaglomerular cells.
    4. epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule.
    5. epithelial cells of collecting duct.
       
  68. Which cells secrete angiotensinogen?
    1. podocytes
    2. epithelial cells of proximal and distal convoluted tubules.
    3. juxtaglomerular cells.
    4. hepatocytes.
    5. epithelial cells of collecting duct.
       
  69. The volume of tubular fluid is greatest as it leaves which of the following?
    1. Bowman's space.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule.
    3. loop of Henle.
    4. distal convoluted tubule.
    5. collecting duct.
       
  70. Which epithelial cells of the urinary tract are specialized with an apical brush border of microvilli?
    1. Bowman's capsule epithelium.
    2. proximal convoluted tubule epithelium.
    3. epithelium lining the thin segment of the loop of Henle.
    4. distal convoluted tubule epithelium.
    5. collecting duct epithelium.
       
  71. Which epithelial cells of the urinary tract are specialized with basal membrane folds closely associated with many mitochondria?
    1. Bowman's capsule epithelium.
    2. proximal and distal convoluted tubule epithelium.
    3. epithelium lining the thin segment of the loop of Henle.
    4. collecting duct epithelium.
    5. transitional epithelium.
       
  72. Which of the following epithelial cells of the urinary tract are simple squamous, without apparent structural specialization?
    1. Bowman's capsule epithelium.
    2. glomerular epithelium (podocytes).
    3. transitional epithelium.
    4. distal convoluted tubule epithelium.
    5. collecting duct epithelium.
       
  73. Which epithelial cells of the urinary tract are specialized with folds of thickened plasma membrane, and including many apical vesicles lined by similar membrane, which may permit rapid expansion of the cells' surface when stretched?
    1. bowman's capsule epithelium.
    2. glomerular epithelium (podocytes).
    3. epithelium lining the thin segment of the loop of Henle.
    4. distal convoluted tubule epithelium.
    5. transitional epithelium.
       
  74. Interstitial cells within the renal glomerulus, whose functions are uncertain but may include phagocytosis and maintenance of the glomerular basement membrane, are the:
    1. podocytes.
    2. macula densa.
    3. juxtaglomerular cells.
    4. mesangial cells.
    5. transitional epithelium.
       
  75. Transitional epithelium lines all of the following EXCEPT the:
    1. renal pelvis.
    2. ureter.
    3. bladder.
    4. proximal urethra.
    5. Bowman's capsule.
       

 

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