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ERG HISTOLOGY Reproductive & Endocrine Systems

SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

NOTE: The following questions are designed for introductory drill.  They do not necessarily represent the quality of questions which will appear on the Unit evaluation.

Set I.  Questions 1-46 cover the basic vocabulary of the male reproductive system (reference:  http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/erg/mguide.htm).

Set II.  Questions 47-87 cover the basic vocabulary of the female reproductive system (reference:  http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/erg/fguide.htm).

Set III.  Questions 88-135 cover the basic vocabulary of the endocrine glands (reference:  http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/erg/enguide.htm).

[Questions for gastrointestinal histology.]


Question Set I.  Male Reproductive Tract

Point to an answer.  Green color and bold indicates "CORRECT."  Red color and italics indicates "Wrong answer."  (NOTE:  In cases where all of the responses are correct, only "all of the above" will be indicated as correct.)

     [An mp3 file of this question set has been recorded by SIUC Anthropology student M. Campbell.]
  

X.  Sample question.
     a.  wrong answer.
     b.  wrong answer.
     c.  CORRECT answer.
     d.  wrong answer.
     e.  wrong answer.

1.  The outermost layer of the testis is the:
     a.  rete testis.
     b.  seminiferous epithelium.
     c.  tunica albuginea.
     d.  mucosa.
     e.  myometrium.

2.  The body of the testis consists mainly of:
     a.  rete testis.
     b.  seminiferous tubules.
     c.  interstitial cells.
     d.  tunica albuginea.
     e.  spermatogonia.

3.  Testicular cells which secrete testosterone are:
     a.  Leydig cells.
     b.  Sertoli cells.
     c.  spermatogonia.
     d.  spermatocytes.
     e.  spermatids.

4.  A network of tubules within the testis which interconnects the seminiferous tubules with the efferent ductules is the:
     a.  epididymis.
     b.  vas deferens.
     c.  rete testis.
     d.  tunica albuginea.
     e.  spermatic cord.

5.  Columnar epithelial cells which line the seminiferous tubules and support the germ cells are called:
     a.  Leydig cells.
     b.  Sertoli cells.
     c.  spermatogonia.
     d.  spermatocytes.
     e.  spermatids.

6.  Germ cells which have finished meiosis but have not yet differentiated into spermatozoa are:
     a.  Leydig cells.
     b.  Sertoli cells.
     c.  spermatogonia.
     d.  spermatocytes.
     e.  spermatids.

7.  Germ cells located at the basal surface of the seminiferous epithelium, which divide mitotically, are:
     a.  Leydig cells.
     b.  Sertoli cells.
     c.  spermatogonia.
     d.  spermatocytes.
     e.  spermatids.

8.  Germ cells preparing for the first meiotic division are:
     a.  spermatogonia.
     b.  primary spermatocytes.
     c.  secondary spermatocytes.
     d.  spermatids.
     e.  spermatozoa.

9.  Germ cells between the first and second meiotic divisions are:
     a.  spermatogonia.
     b.  primary spermatocytes.
     c.  secondary spermatocytes.
     d.  spermatids.
     e.  spermatozoa.

10.  The DNA content of spermatogonia is:
(For this question, please treat N as equivalent to "one set of double-stranded DNA molecules".)
     a.  N/2.
     b.  N.
     c.  2N.
     d.  3N.
     e.  4N.

11.  The DNA content of primary spermatocytes just before they divide is:
(For this question, please treat N as equivalent to "one set of double-stranded DNA molecules".)
     a.  N/2.
     b.  N.
     c.  2N.
     d.  3N.
     e.  4N.

12.  The DNA content of secondary spermatocytes is:
(For this question, please treat N as equivalent to "one set of double-stranded DNA molecules".)
     a.  N/2.
     b.  N.
     c.  2N.
     d.  3N.
     e.  4N.

13.  The DNA content of spermatids is:
(For this question, please treat N as equivalent to "one set of double-stranded DNA molecules".)
     a.  N/2.
     b.  N.
     c.  2N.
     d.  3N.
     e.  4N.

14.  The DNA content of spermatozoa is:
(For this question, please treat N as equivalent to "one set of double-stranded DNA molecules".)
     a.  N/2.
     b.  N.
     c.  2N.
     d.  3N.
     e.  4N.

15.  All of the following cells divide, either mitotically or meiotically, EXCEPT:
     a.  spermatogonia.
     b.  primary spermatocytes.
     c.  secondary spermatocytes.
     d.  spermatids and spermatozoa.
     e.  all of the above cells divide.

16.  The acrosome is located in the:
     a.  head of the spermatozoa.
     b.  tail of the spermatozoa.
     c.  apical cytoplasm of the Sertoli cell.
     d.  basal cytoplasm of the Sertoli cell.
     e.  cytoplasm of the Leydig cell.

17.  The acrosome contains enzymes which help sperm cells to:
     a.  develop from early spermatids.
     b.  mature within the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
     c.  acquire flagellar motility.
     d.  penetrate the oocyte.

18.  The tail of the spermatozoa contains:
     a.  mitochondria spiraling around the middle piece.
     b.  two separate microtubules in the center, extending its full length.
     c.  nine pairs of microtubules surrounding the central two.
     d.  a fibrous sheath along the principal piece.
     e.  all of the above.

19.  The DNA content of Sertoli cells is:
(For this question, please treat N as equivalent to "one set of double-stranded DNA molecules".)
     a.  N/2.
     b.  N.
     c.  2N.
     d.  3N.
     e.  4N.

20.  The function of Sertoli cells includes all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  phagocytosis of residual bodies from maturing spermatids.
     b.  establishment through tight junctions of a blood/testis barrier.
     c.  metabolic and mechanical support of germ cells.
     d.  secretion of tubular fluid.
     e.  secretion of testosterone.

21.  The function of Leydig cells is:
     a.  phagocytosis of residual bodies from maturing spermatids.
     b.  establishment through tight junctions of a blood/testis barrier.
     c.  metabolic and mechanical support of germ cells.
     d.  secretion of tubular fluid.
     e.  secretion of testosterone.

22.  Which cell of the testis has eosinophilic cytoplasm with extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum, abundant mitochondria and lipid droplets, and is located interstitially?
     a.  Sertoli cell
     b.  Leydig cell
     c.  spermatogonium
     d.  spermatocyte
     e.  spermatid

23.  Which cell of the testis produces androgen binding protein (ABP) in response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in order to respond to testosterone and thus regulate germ cell production?
     a.  Sertoli cell
     b.  Leydig cell
     c.  spermatogonium
     d.  spermatocyte
     e.  spermatid

24.  During spermiogenesis, the spermatid does all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  acquire an acrosome.
     b.  acquire a flagellum.
     c.  condense the nuclear chromatin.
     d.  shed the euchromatin into the residual body.
     e.  shed excess cytoplasm into the residual body.

25.  The head of the epididymis contains:
     a.  efferent ductules.
     b.  serous secretory acini.
     c.  mucuous secretory tubules.
     d.  the rete testis.
     e.  the spermatic cord.

26.  The epithelial lining of the duct of the epididymis is:
     a.  simple squamous epithelium.
     b.  ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
     c.  pseudostratified epithelium with stereocilia (long, non-motile microvilli).
     d.  columnar epithelium with brush border and goblet cells.
     e.  transitional epithelium.

27.  The length of the ductus epididymis is approximately:
     a.  50 microns.
     b.  500 microns.
     c.  5 millimeters.
     d.  5 centimeters.
     e.  5 meters.

28.  Functions for the epididymis include all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  provide a site for sperm maturation.
     b.  provide a site for sperm storage.
     c.  absorb excess fluid entering from the testicular tubules.
     d.  secrete various factors into the tubular lumen.
     e.  secrete the bulk of ejaculate volume.

29.  The spermatic cord contains all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  the vas deferens.
     b.  blood and lymphatic vessels.
     c.  nerves.
     d.  striated skeletal muscle.
     e.  serous alveoli.

30.  The epithelium of the vas deferens is:
     a.  simple squamous epithelium.
     b.  ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
     c.  pseudostratified epithelium with stereocilia (long, non-motile microvilli).
     d.  columnar epithelium with brush border and goblet cells.
     e.  transitional epithelium.

31.  The thickest layer of the vas deferens is the:
     a.  epithelium.
     b.  lamina propria.
     c.  muscularis.
     d.  adventitia.
     e.  intima.

32.  The seminal vesicle consists of:
     a.  serous secretory alveoli and branching ducts in a fibrous stroma.
     b.  mucous secretory tubules.
     c.  a coiled tubule lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
     d.  a hollow tube with an extensively folded mucosal lining, in a fibromuscular stroma.
     e.  lymph nodules with crypts leading into the vas deferens.

33.  The ejaculatory duct connects the:
     a.  testis with the epididymis.
     b.  epididymis with the seminal vesicle.
     c.  seminal vesicle with the prostatic urethra.
     d.  prostatic urethra with the bladder.
     e.  prostatic urethra with the penile urethra.

34.  The mucosa of the seminal vesicle is lined by:
     a.  simple squamous epithelium.
     b.  ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
     c.  pseudostratified epithelium with secretory cells.
     d.  columnar epithelium with brush border and goblet cells.
     e.  transitional epithelium.

35.  The stroma of the prostate is primarily:
     a.  adipose tissue.
     b.  loose areolar connective tissue.
     c.  dense fibrous connective tissue.
     d.  fibromuscular connective tissue.
     e.  transitional epithelium.

36.  The prostate:
     a.  contains glandular tissue in three layers: mucosal (periurethral), submucosal, and peripheral (main) glands.
     b.  contains secretory epithelium forming complex folds supported by lamina propria.
     c.  is lined by simple columnar or pseudostratified epithelium.
     d.  may contain small concretions (corpora amylacea) in glandular lumens.
     e.  all of the above..

37.  Semen contains fluid derived from the testes and all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  epididymis and vas deferens.
     b.  seminal vesicles.
     c.  bulbourethral glands.
     d.  prostate.
     e.  corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa.

38.  Corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum are:
     a.  erectile tissue.
     b.  adipose tissue.
     c.  fibromuscular tissue.
     d.  glandular tissue.
     e.  mucosal tissue.

39.  The penile urethra passes through the:
     a.  spermatic cord.
     b.  corpora cavernosa.
     c.  corpus spongiosum.
     d.  prostate.
     e.  seminal vesicle.

40.  The spaces within erectile tissue are:
     a.  vascular, lined by endothelium.
     b.  lymphatic, lined by endothelium.
     c.  interstitial, with no proper lining.
     d.  peritoneal, lined by mesothelium.
     e.  urinary, lined by transitional epithelium.

41.  Which organ functions to produce the bulk of ejaculatory volume, including fructose:
     a.  testis.
     b.  epididymis.
     c.  vas deferens.
     d.  seminal vesicle.
     e.  prostate.

42.  Which organ functions as a site where sperm cells mature after spermiogenesis?
     a.  testis
     b.  epididymis
     c.  vas deferens
     d.  seminal vesicle
     e.  prostate

43.  Which organ functions to produce sperm cells by mitosis and meiosis?
     a.  testis
     b.  epididymis
     c.  vas deferens
     d.  seminal vesicle
     e.  prostate

44.  Which organ surrounds the urethra?
     a.  testis
     b.  epididymis
     c.  vas deferens
     d.  seminal vesicle
     e.  prostate

45.  Which organ functions to secrete citric acid and acid phosphatase, as well as other enzymes into seminal fluid?
     a.  testis
     b.  epididymis
     c.  vas deferens
     d.  seminal vesicle
     e.  prostate

46.  Which organ may enlarge with age, eventually causing problems with urination?
     a.  testis
     b.  epididymis
     c.  vas deferens
     d.  seminal vesicle
     e.  prostate

 


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Question Set II.  Female Reproductive Tract

Point to an answer.  Green color and bold indicates "CORRECT."  Red color and italics indicates "Wrong answer."  (NOTE:  In cases where all of the responses are correct, only "all of the above" will be indicated as correct.)

     [An mp3 file of this question set has been recorded by SIUC Anthropology student M. Campbell.]
 

X.  Sample question.
     a.  wrong answer.
     b.  wrong answer.
     c.  CORRECT answer.
     d.  wrong answer.
     e.  wrong answer.

47.  Ovarian follicles are found in the ovarian:
     a.  hilus.
     b.  medulla.
     c.  cortex.
     d.  tunica albuginea.
     e.  theca.

48.  Cells comprising the ovarian stroma are called:
     a.  ovarian stromal cells.
     b.  fibroblasts.
     c.  smooth muscle cells.
     d.  granulosa cells.
     e.  lutein cells.

49.  Larger blood vessels are found in the ovarian:
     a.  theca.
     b.  medulla.
     c.  cortex.
     d.  tunica albuginea.
     e.  granulosa.

50.  During ovarian follicle maturation, surrounding stromal cells differentiate to form the:
     a.  granulosa.
     b.  corona radiata.
     c.  antrum.
     d.  theca interna and theca externa.
     e.  zona pellucida.

51.  The "germinal epithelium" of the ovary is:
     a.  simple cuboidal mesothelium.
     b.  the source for germ cells (oocytes).
     c.  the layer of support cells surrounding individual oocytes.
     d.  organized into branching tubules.
     e.  all of the above.

52.  At the center of each ovarian follicle is a large cell called the:
     a.  granulosa cell.
     b.  thecal cell.
     c.  lutein cell.
     d.  oogonial cell.
     e.  oocyte.

53.  The distinct extracellular layer of glycoprotein which forms around the oocyte in a primary follicle is called the:
     a.  granulosa.
     b.  theca.
     c.  zona pellucida.
     d.  corona radiata.
     e.  antrum.

54.  The cells which form ovarian follicles, enclosing each oocyte and separated from the surrounding stroma cells by a basement membrane, are called:
     a.  granulosa cells.
     b.  theca cells.
     c.  lutein cells.
     d.  oogonial cells.
     e.  oocytes.

55.  Ovarian follicles in which the granulosa cells form a single layer of flattened (squamous) cells are called:
     a.  primordial follicles.
     b.  primary / secondary follicles.
     c.  tertiary / Graafian follicles.
     d.  atretic follicles.
     e.  corpora albicans.

56.  Ovarian follicles in which the granulosa cells form one or more layers of cuboidal cells, without clear spaces between, are called:
     a.  primordial follicles.
     b.  primary / secondary follicles.
     c.  tertiary / Graafian follicles.
     d.  atretic follicles.
     e.  corpora albicans.

57.  Ovarian follicles in which the granulosa cells separate to form a clear space or cavity are called:
     a.  primordial follicles.
     b.  primary / secondary follicles.
     c.  tertiary / Graafian follicles.
     d.  atretic follicles.
     e.  corpora albicans.

58.  Ovarian follicles which are degenerating after failing to mature are called:
     a.  primordial follicles.
     b.  primary / secondary follicles.
     c.  tertiary / Graafian follicles.
     d.  atretic follicles.
     e.  corpora albicans.

59.  The space which forms between granulosa cells in Graafian follicles is called the:
     a.  theca interna.
     b.  theca externa.
     c.  zona pellucida.
     d.  corona radiata.
     e.  antrum.

60.  Within late Graafian follicles the oocyte is found in a mound of granulosa cells named "the egg bearing hill," or:
     a.  theca interna.
     b.  theca externa.
     c.  zona pellucida.
     d.  corona radiata.
     e.  cumulus oophorus.

61.  Granulosa cells which surround the oocyte and accompany it when it is released are called the "radiating crown," or:
     a.  theca interna.
     b.  theca externa.
     c.  zona pellucida.
     d.  corona radiata.
     e.  cumulus oophorus.

62.  After ovulation, granulosa cells and cells of theca interna grow and differentiate to form the:
     a.  corpus albicans.
     b.  corpus luteum.
     c.  zona pellucida.
     d.  corona radiata.
     e.  cumulus oophorus.

63.  Follicle granulosa cells and cells of the theca interna secrete:
     a.  follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
     b.  mucus.
     c.  estrogens and progesterone.
     d.  luteinizing hormone (LH).
     e.  all of the above.

64.  Granulosa and thecal lutein cells secrete:
     a.  follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
     b.  mucus.
     c.  estrogens and progesterone.
     d.  luteinizing hormone (LH).
     e.  all of the above.

65.  The corpus luteum eventually degenerates, leaving a scar named the "white body" or:
     a.  corpus albicans.
     b.  atretic follicle.
     c.  zona pellucida.
     d.  corona radiata.
     e.  cumulus oophorus.

66.  Cilia are found:
     a.  at the surface of the germinal epithelium.
     b.  on the surface of the ovum.
     c.  on the free surface of corona radiata cells.
     d.  lining the fallopian tube.
     e.  lining the uterus.

67.  The myometrium consists primarily of:
     a.  smooth muscle.
     b.  striated muscle.
     c.  elastic connective tissue.
     d.  loose fibrous connective tissue.
     e.  glandular tissue.

68.  What type of epithelium lines the uterus?
     a.  simple squamous
     b.  simple cuboidal
     c.  simple columnar
     d.  pseudostratified
     e.  stratified squamous

69.  The mucosal layer of the uterus is called the:
     a.  endometrium.
     b.  myometrium.
     c.  chorionic villi.
     d.  placenta.
     e.  cervix.

70.  The layer of the endometrium which is replaced with each menstrual cycle is called the:
     a.  myometrium.
     b.  chorion.
     c.  stratum functionalis.
     d.  stratum basalis.
     e.  mucosa.

71.  The layer of the endometrium which remains intact after menstruation and serves as source for replacement epithelial and stromal cells is called the:
     a.  myometrium.
     b.  chorion.
     c.  stratum functionalis.
     d.  stratum basalis.
     e.  mucosa.

72.  The proliferative phase of the endometrium is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  common mitotic figures in the endometrial stroma.
     b.  common mitotic figures in the glandular epithelium.
     c.  absence of differentiated secretory cells in the glandular epithelium.
     d.  relatively smooth epithelial lining of the glandular tubules.
     e.  a stratified squamous surface.

73.  The secretory phase of the endometrium is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  mitotic figures uncommon or absent in the endometrial stroma.
     b.  mitotic figures uncommon or absent in the glandular epithelium.
     c.  glandular epithelium lined primarily by differentiated secretory cells.
     d.  very irregular epithelial lining of the glandular tubules.
     e.  extensive smooth muscle.

74.  Blood vessels which extend up into the growing superficial layer of the uterus and retract back into the basal layer during menstruation are called, descriptively:
     a.  venous sinuses.
     b.  venous sinusoids.
     c.  capillary sinusoids.
     d.  portal veins.
     e.  spiral arteries.

75.  What type of epithelium lines the ectocervix (sampled by a cervical smear / Pap smear)?
     a.  simple squamous
     b.  simple cuboidal
     c.  simple columnar
     d.  pseudostratified
     e.  stratified squamous

76.  What type of epithelium lines the vagina?
     a.  simple squamous
     b.  simple cuboidal
     c.  simple columnar
     d.  pseudostratified
     e.  stratified squamous

77.  Superficial cells of the vaginal epithelium appear relatively clear with H&E stain because of their high content of:
     a.  ribosomes.
     b.  mitochondria.
     c.  lipid.
     d.  microfilaments.
     e.  glycogen.

78.  The stored material characteristic of vaginal epithelium may be selectively stained with:
     a.  periodic acid Schiff (PAS).
     b.  hematoxylin.
     c.  eosin.
     d.  trichrome.
     e.  lipid stain.

79.  The submucosal tissue of the vagina contains all of the following EXCEPT:
     a.  an extensive venous plexus.
     b.  many interwoven bundles of smooth muscle.
     c.  extensive adipose tissue.
     d.  loose fibroelastic connective tissue.
     e.  many nerves.

80.  All of the following are fetal components of the placenta EXCEPT:
     a.  chorionic villi.
     b.  cytotrophoblast.
     c.  syncytiotrophoblast.
     d.  decidual cells.
     e.  mesenchyme.

81.  Maternal blood flows through the:
     a.  chorionic villi.
     b.  chorionic plate.
     c.  intervillous space.
     d.  umbilical cord.
     e.  all of the above.

82.  The surface of the placental villi is formed by the:
     a.  decidual cells.
     b.  syncytiotrophoblast.
     c.  mesenchyme.
     d.  fetal endothelium.
     e.  maternal endothelium.

83.  The core of the placental villi is formed by the:
     a.  decidual cells.
     b.  syncytiotrophoblast.
     c.  mesenchyme and fetal blood vessels.
     d.  intervillous space.
     e.  maternal endothelium.

84.  Cuboidal cells forming a layer just inside the syncytiotrophoblast are the:
     a.  cytotrophoblast.
     b.  decidual cells.
     c.  mesenchyme.
     d.  fetal endothelium.
     e.  secretory epithelium.

85.  Which of the following are maternal cells?
     a.  cytotrophoblast
     b.  decidual cells
     c.  mesenchyme
     d.  fetal endothelium
     e.  syncytiotrophoblast

86.  Fetal blood flows through:
     a.  lacunae in the endometrium.
     b.  the intervillous space.
     c.  vessels and capillaries within the chorionic villi.
     d.  the chorionic cavity.
     e.  the amniotic cavity.

87.  The umbilical cord consists of:
     a.  mucous connective tissue (Wharton’s jelly).
     b.  one umbilical artery.
     c.  another umbilical artery.
     d.  one umbilical vein.
     e.  all of the above.

 

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Question Set III.  Endocrine Glands

Point to an answer.  Green color and bold indicates "CORRECT."  Red color and italics indicates "Wrong answer."  (NOTE:  In cases where all of the responses are correct, only "all of the above" will be indicated as correct.)

X.  Sample question.
     a.  wrong answer.
     b.  wrong answer.
     c.  CORRECT answer.
     d.  wrong answer.
     e.  wrong answer.

88.  Cells specialized to secrete steroids typically contain:
     a.  extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
     b.  numerous mitochondria with tubular cristae.
     c.  many lipid droplets.
     d.  well-developed Golgi apparatus.
     e.  all of the above.

89.  Cells specialized to secrete peptides or proteins typically contain:
     a.  extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
     b.  numerous mitochondria with tubular cristae.
     c.  many lipid droplets.
     d.  extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum.
     e.  all of the above.

90.  The portion of the pituitary which contains cords and clusters of secretory epithelial cells is the:
     a.  anterior lobe.
     b.  posterior lobe.
     c.  neurohypophysis.
     d.  median eminence.
     e.  infundibulum.

91.  The portion of the pituitary which contains terminals of axons arising from neuron cell bodies in the hypothalamus is the:
     a.  anterior lobe.
     b.  posterior lobe.
     c.  adenohypophysis.
     d.  median eminence.
     e.  infundibulum.

92.  Adenohypophysis (adeno = glandular) is another name for the:
     a.  anterior lobe of the pituitary.
     b.  posterior lobe of the pituitary.
     c.  hypothalamus.
     d.  median eminence.
     e.  infundibulum.

93.  Neurohypophysis is another name for the:
     a.  anterior lobe of the pituitary.
     b.  posterior lobe of the pituitary.
     c.  hypothalamus.
     d.  median eminence.
     e.  infundibulum.

94.  The base of the hypothalamus which connects with the pituitary is called the:
     a.  anterior lobe.
     b.  posterior lobe.
     c.  neurohypophysis.
     d.  adenohypophysis.
     e.  median eminence and infundibulum.

95.  (Review; see Kandel, Schwartz & Jessel, 4th ed., p 976)
Along the midline within the hypothalamus is the:
     a.  optic chiasm.
     b.  amygdala.
     c.  third ventricle.
     d.  lateral hypothalamic area.
     e.  mammillary body.

96.  (Review; see Kandel, Schwartz & Jessel, 4th ed., p 976)
Immediately anterior to the hypothalamus is the:
     a.  optic chiasm.
     b.  amygdala.
     c.  third ventricle.
     d.  lateral hypothalamic area.
     e.  mammillary body.

97.  (Review; see Kandel, Schwartz & Jessel, 4th ed., p 976)
The posterior region of the hypothalamus is the:
     a.  optic chiasm.
     b.  amygdala.
     c.  third ventricle.
     d.  lateral hypothalamic area.
     e.  mammillary body.

98.  Hypophyseal portal vessels bring blood to the adenohypophysis from the:
     a.  liver.
     b.  intestine.
     c.  amygdala.
     d.  neurohypophysis.
     e.  median eminence of the hypothalamus.

99.  Pituicytes of the posterior pituitary are most like:
     a.  fibroblasts.
     b.  glial cells.
     c.  secretory epithelial cells.
     d.  squamous epithelial cells.
     e.  melanocytes.

100.  The anterior pituitary contains secretory cells called:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  lactotrophs.
     c.  thyrotrophs.
     d.  corticotrophs.
     e.  all of the above, and also gonadotrophs.

101.  Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  lactotrophs.
     c.  thyrotrophs.
     d.  posterior pituitary.
     e.  gonadotrophs.

102.  Thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH) is secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  posterior pituitary.
     c.  thyrotrophs.
     d.  corticotrophs.
     e.  pineal.

103.  Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  lactotrophs.
     c.  posterior pituitary.
     d.  corticotrophs.
     e.  pineal.

104.  Growth hormone (somatotropin, GH) is secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  pineal.
     c.  thyrotrophs.
     d.  corticotrophs.
     e.  posterior pituitary.

105.  Prolactin is secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  lactotrophs.
     c.  thyrotrophs.
     d.  posterior pituitary.
     e.  gonadotrophs.

106.  Oxytocin is secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  lactotrophs.
     c.  posterior pituitary.
     d.  pineal.
     e.  gonadotrophs.

107.  Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin, ADH) is secreted by the:
     a.  pineal.
     b.  posterior pituitary.
     c.  thyrotrophs.
     d.  corticotrophs.
     e.  gonadotrophs.

108.  Melatonin is secreted by the:
     a.  somatotrophs.
     b.  posterior pituitary.
     c.  pineal.
     d.  corticotrophs.
     e.  gonadotrophs.

109.  Corticotrophs, gonadotrophs, lactotrophs, somatotrophs, and thyrotrophs are all found in the:
     a.  neurohypophysis.
     b.  adenohypophysis.
     c.  hypothalamus.
     d.  pineal.
     e.  adrenal.

110.  Cells of the adenohypophysis, when named according to their staining properties rather than their hormones, are the:
     a.  acidophils.
     b.  basophils.
     c.  chromophobes.
     d.  all of the above.

111.  The pineal gland is:
     a.  derived evolutionarily from a medial photoreceptor organ.
     b.  located at the posterior end of the third ventricle.
     c.  innervated by sympathetic axons from the superior cervical ganglion.
     d.  composed of glial cells and cells (pinealocytes) similar to neurons.
     e.  all of the above.

112.  Which gland has a distinct cortex and medulla?
     a.  thyroid
     b.  parathyroid
     c.  adrenal
     d.  pituitary
     e.  testes

113.  Which tissue is most similar to a sympathetic ganglion?
     a.  testicular interstitium
     b.  pancreatic islets
     c.  adrenal cortex
     d.  adrenal medulla
     e.  ovarian medulla

114.  Which gland is organized into follicles lined by simple cuboidal epithelial cells and containing stored hormone precursor?
     a.  thyroid
     b.  parathyroid
     c.  adrenal
     d.  pancreatic islets
     e.  testes

115.  Which tissue is embedded within a serous acinar exocrine gland?
     a.  testicular interstitium
     b.  pancreatic islets
     c.  adrenal cortex
     d.  adrenal medulla
     e.  ovarian medulla

116.  Epithelial cells are arranged into cords around large capillaries or sinusoids in all of the following EXCEPT the:
     a.  parathyroid.
     b.  adenohypophysis.
     c.  adrenal cortex.
     d.  adrenal medulla.
     e.  pancreatic islets.

117.  A zone of parallel cords or fascicles (zona fasciculata) is found in the:
     a.  parathyroid.
     b.  adenohypophysis.
     c.  adrenal cortex.
     d.  adrenal medulla.
     e.  pancreatic islets.

118.  Pancreatic alpha cells secrete:
     a.  insulin.
     b.  glucagon.
     c.  somatostatin.
     d.  pancreatic polypeptide.
     e.  aldosterone.

119.  Pancreatic beta cells secrete:
     a.  insulin.
     b.  glucagon.
     c.  somatostatin.
     d.  pancreatic polypeptide.
     e.  aldosterone.

120.  Pancreatic delta cells secrete
     a.  insulin.
     b.  glucagon.
     c.  somatostatin.
     d.  pancreatic polypeptide.
     e.  aldosterone.

121.  Pancreatic PP cells secrete:
     a.  insulin.
     b.  glucagon.
     c.  somatostatin.
     d.  pancreatic polypeptide.
     e.  aldosterone.

122.  Which organ secretes steroid hormones?
     a.  islets of Langerhans
     b.  adrenal cortex
     c.  adrenal medulla
     d.  thyroid
     e.  parathyroid

123.  Which tissue does NOT secrete steroid hormones?
     a.  testicular interstitium
     b.  adrenal cortex
     c.  parathyroid
     d.  ovarian follicles
     e.  corpus luteum

124.  Calcitonin is secreted by:
     a.  parathyroid chief cells.
     b.  thyroid follicular cells.
     c.  thyroid parafollicular cells.
     d.  cells of adrenal cortex.
     e.  cells of adrenal medulla.

125.  Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by:
     a.  parathyroid chief cells.
     b.  thyroid follicular cells.
     c.  thyroid parafollicular cells.
     d.  cells of adrenal cortex.
     e.  cells of adrenal medulla.

126.  Aldosterone is secreted by cells of the:
     a.  testicular interstitium.
     b.  adrenal cortex.
     c.  parathyroid.
     d.  ovarian follicles.
     e.  corpus luteum.

127.  Estrogen and progesterone are secreted by cells of the:
     a.  adrenal medulla.
     b.  adrenal cortex.
     c.  parathyroid.
     d.  ovary.
     e.  adenohypophysis.

128.  The activity of osteoclasts is stimulated, increasing blood calcium levels, by secretion from the:
     a.  thyroid follicles.
     b.  adrenal cortex.
     c.  parathyroid.
     d.  thyroid parafollicular cells (C cells).
     e.  neurohypophysis.

129.  The activity of osteoclasts is inhibited, decreasing blood calcium levels, by secretion from the:
     a.  thyroid follicles.
     b.  adrenal cortex.
     c.  parathyroid.
     d.  thyroid parafollicular cells (C cells).
     e.  neurohypophysis.

130.  The permeability of renal collecting duct cells is increased by secretion from the:
     a.  thyroid follicles.
     b.  adrenal cortex.
     c.  parathyroid.
     d.  thyroid parafollicular cells (C cells).
     e.  neurohypophysis.

131.  Reabsorption of sodium by renal tubules is regulated by secretion from the:
     a.  thyroid follicles.
     b.  adrenal cortex.
     c.  parathyroid.
     d.  thyroid parafollicular cells (C cells).
     e.  neurohypophysis.

132.  Going from the capsule toward the medulla, the zones of the adrenal cortex are:
     a.  zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis.
     b.  zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis, zona fasciculata.
     c.  zona fasciculata, zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis.
     d.  zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, zona glomerulosa.
     e.  zona reticularis, zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata.

133.  Smooth muscle cells of the uterus and myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland contract in response to secretion from the:
     
a.  adrenal cortex.
     b.  corpus luteum.
     c.  neurohypophysis.
     d.  parathyroid.
     e.  thyroid.

134.  Endocrine secretions by hepatocytes include:
     a.  serum albumins.
     b.  angiotensinogen.
     c.  fibrinogen.
     d.  glucose from glycogen breakdown.
     e.  all of the above.

135.  The target cells stimulated by angiotensin (after its formation from angiotensinogen is catalyzed by renin from renal juxtaglomerular cells) are found in the:
     a.  ovary.
     b.  testes.
     c.  adrenal cortex.
     d.  parathyroid.
     e.  adenohypophysis.

 

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