Karen Hales, PhD

Assistant Professor
Obstetrics and Gynecology

    About me



    Education & training

    Undergraduate Degree
    1989-1995 Post-doctorate in Biochemistry at the University of Illinois at Chicago
    1985-1989 Post-doctorate in Molecular Virology at the University of Michigan
    1985 PhD in Pathology at the University of Colorado
    1979 BS in General Biology at Colorado State University


    1. Held, K.A. and Lehman, J.M.  Viral DNA integration patterns of primary SV40 tumors.  J. Exp. Pathol. 1 (2): 135-142, 1984.
    2. Lehman, J.M., McMahon, J.G., Hales, K.H. and Trevor, K.T.  Characterization of a mutant polyoma that expresses in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells:  Morphology, tumorigenicity, and restriction enzyme analysis.  Experimental and Molecular Pathology 47, 59-68, 1987.
    3. Hales, K.H. and Lehman, J.M.  Further characterization of the interaction of polyoma virus and simian virus 40 with embryonal carcinoma cells.  Experimental and Molecular Pathology 47, 48-58, 1987.
    4. Hales, K.H., Birk, J.M. and Imperiale, M.J.  Analysis of adenovirus type 2 L1 RNA 3'-end formation in vivo and in vitro.  Journal of Virology 62, 1464-1468, 1988.
    5. Hales, K.H., Meredith, J.E., and Storti, R.V.  Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of maternal and zygotic cytoskeletal tropomyosin mRNA during Drosophila development correlates with specific morphogenic events.  Developmental Biology, 165, 639-653, 1994.
    6. Held Hales, K., Diemer, T., Ginde, S., Roberts, M.R., Shankar, B.K., Bosmann, H.B, Hales, D.B. “Diametric effects of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide on adrenal and Leydig cell Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR).”  Endocrinology 141:4000-4012 (2000).
    7. Diemer, T., Allen, J.A., Held Hales, K., Hales, D.B. “Reactive Oxygen Disrupts Mitochondria in MA-10 Tumor Leydig cells and Inhibits Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) Protein and Steroidogenesis” Endocrinology 144:2882-91 (2003)
    8. Allen, J.A., Diemer, T., Held Hales, K., Janus, P., Hales, D.B. “Bacterial Endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide and Reactive Oxygen Species Inhibit Leydig Cell Steroidogenesis via Perturbation of Mitochondria” Endocrine, 25: 265-276 (2004)
    9. Allen, J.A., Shankara, T.C., Janus, P., Buck, S., Diemer, T., Held Hales, K. Hales, D.B “The mitochondrial membrane potential (DYm), hydrogen ion gradient (ΔpH) and ATP synthesis are required for Leydig cell steroidogenesis” Endocrinology  147 3924-3935 (2006)
    10. Eilati, E, Zhuge, Y, Hales, KH, Ansenberger Fricano, K, Rui, Y, van Breemen, RB, Hales, DB “Flaxseed enriched diet-mediated reduction in ovarian cancer severity is correlated to the reduction of prostaglandin E2 in laying hen ovaries.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids 89:179-87 (2013)
    11. Hales, K.H, Speckman S., Kurrey, N.K., Hales, D.B. “Uncovering Molecular Events Associated with Chemosuppressant Effects of Flaxseed: A Microarray Analysis in Laying Hen Model of Ovarian Cancer BMC Genomics 15 (1):709-713 (2014)
    12. Dikshit, A, Gao, C, Small, C, Hales, K, and Hales, DB, “Flaxseed and its components cause differential effects on estrogen receptor expression and signaling pathways in the ovary of pre-cancerous laying hens.” J Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 159:73-85 (2016)
    13. Dikshit, A, Hales, KH, Hales, DB “Whole flaxseed diet alters estrogen metabolism to promote 2-methoxyestradiol-induced apoptosis in hen ovarian cancer” J Biochemical Nutrition (in press, 2017)


    “Flaxseed as maintenance therapy for ovarian cancer patients in remission” (2014-2017; $50,000). Team Science Grant, Co-Pi (Hales, Brard, K Hales). Simmons Cancer Institute at SIU School of Medicine.

    “Development of a tissue culture toolbox for the hen model of epithelial ovarian cancer” (2015-2017; $15,000). Research Seed Grant (PI Hales). Simmons Cancer Institute at SIU School of Medicine.

    “Role of Senescent Cells in the Development of Ovarian Cancer” (2012; $5,000). Art Erhmann Cancer Fund (PI Hales). Faternal Order of Eagles



    1979-1981 NIH Predoctoral Fellowship

    1985-1986 Thurnau Postdoctoral Fellowship

    1988-1990 National Research Service Award